Home < Scaling Bitcoin Conference < Stanford (2017) < Using Chains for what They're Good For

Using Chains for what They're Good For

Speakers: Andrew Poelstra

Transcript By: Bryan Bishop

Tags: Adaptor signatures

Category: Conference

Media: https://www.youtube.com/watch?t=5757&v=3pd6xHjLbhs

I am Andrew Poelstra, a cryptographer at Blockstream. I am going to talk about scriptless scripts. But this is a specific example of a more general theme, which is using the blockchain as a trust anchor or commitment layer for smart contracts whose real contents don’t really hit the blockchain. I’ll elaborate on what I mean by that, and I’ll show what the benefits are for that.

To give some context, in Bitcoin script, the scripting language which is used to encode smart contracts, which go on to the blockchain and everyone verifies the chain and downloads and executes all of this contract code. Everyone validates the chain. Everyone that wants to trustlessly learn the state of the system has to download and parse and validate. They can’t compress or aggregate the data. They can’t make it smaller due to kolmogorov complexity. The contractors doing this, before they publish, to be ensured that it doesn’t get reverted, the transaction must first be confirmed. This is a poisson process. Once your transaction lands in a block, you need additional assurances. You never have perfect finality, too.

In addition to this, the contracts encoded in script have rules that everyone needs to agree on. If there’s any disagreement in the system or network about which scripts are valid or invalid, it would cause a disagreement on the history of the chain and that’s a consensus failure, and as a result everyone needs to agree on the rules beforehand. So adding more functionality is often a painful process, as we have learned recently.

Additionally, I also care about the details of the script. The details have to be there and stay forever. If people are doing a complex transaction amongst themselves, maybe they don’t want that data to be visible outside of their group. But once your contract is published, everyone sees it, it has to be kept forever because future validators need to be able to see it. And related to this, when transactions are collected into blocks, miners can choose whatever transactions they want and they are incentivized to go with the highest fee but this incentive is only within the system. There are external incentives though, and the real world can interact with the mining process here. Miners that can see contract details become a target to government and external systems and they might not want that liability. We don’t want them to be able to see that data, because it’s a censorship risk, and it’s a liability to the miners which they don’t want to have.

All of these contracts executed by explicitly published code are really only using the blockchain for one thing - to get an immutable ordering of what order the transactions happen in. All that they really care about is that the transaction is not reversed and not double spent. This is the core competency of bitcoin blockchain. This is what I mean by my talk’s title. This is what needs to go into the blockchain. If we can do that in principle, we should be able to avoid putting anything else in the blockchain into there. It should just be inputs and outputs. The exact conditions under which this can happen can be reduced to a very small amount of data that doesn’t reveal what the commitments are.

There’s a distinction between validation and execution. We see this in two places. In general in computer science, when you talk about turing machines vs turing deciders, there’s a post theorem that shows that it’s strictly easier to validate the correct execution of some program than it is to execute it yourself, because you can provide a witness which shows it. Instead of executing the script. In crypto, we talk about validation vs execution. In computer science, it’s about how expressive it’s required. Verification of something can be done in zero knowledge where the helper data is not revealed to everyone, but through the magic of cryptography everyone can verify that the extra data existed and it was correct.

In addition to execution vs verifiability distinction, there’s verifiability vs public verifiability. The blockchain verifiers care about the state of the system like where the coins are, how many coins there are, what they are assigned to and so on. When they see a transaction, they want to know that the transaction is authorized and that they agree. But they don’t care too much what it truly means. When you’re transacting, you care about faithful execution and the rules you want to enforce. But everybody else doesn’t care- only that the rules were followed and that whoever owned the money before was somehow okay with it moving. This is much more nebulous thing than what the transactor probably cares about.

There’s kind of a general way to do contracting, which Adam Gibson talked about in a recent or upcoming blog post where you can imagine instead of doing some complex ethereum contract or series of bitcoin scripts… suppose you only care about money moving only under external conditions. You can move your coins to a multisig output. Everyone involved has to sign off on it. When you set it up, you do a locktime refund transaction with a timeout. Under some external conditions, which only the signers care about, each of them checks the conditions and only then they do sign off. What the blockchain validators check is that the signatures are present. They don’t care about the external conditions are. They dodn’t need to download a description of those conditions or anything like that.

Suppose, though, that the conditions that the signers want to enforce are not just external things about the world that they can look at. Suppose they want to enforce conditions on each other. The classic example is an atomic exchange between blockchains, like giving money to someone in exchange for other altcoins. And bitcoin and ethereum have different blockchains. Both me and my counterparty need to sign off to move our coins in each chain. My risk is that I can sign to give my coins away and the other side doesn’t sign. Or vice versa. Somehow we have to sign simultaneously and that’s what I mean by signers enforcing conditions on each other. I will talk on the next slide about how to do this.

You can do this in bitcoin script or ethereum or what-have-you, in a classic way, where in order to take your coins you need to reveal a hash preimage. In both blockchains, it’s required to reveal this hash preimage. Initially, one person actually knows what the hash preimage is and the other one doesn’t. They sign to take their coins and, to do that, they reveal a hash preimage, which they do by creating a blockchain script that says “these coins may not move until something is revealed to the blockchain, which hashes to this fixed value”. So, that person reveals the hash preimage to take their coins. At that point, the other person can read the preimage off of the public blockchain, copy to the second blockchain and take their coins. And thus atomicity has been achieved.

This isn’t good: it links the two transactions because you see the same hash challenge preimage. And it’s inefficient because it forces the verifiers to download the hash, the preimage, and check that they match. The verifiers don’t really care about that. Only the two transactors care about the hash preimage, and they only care while they are executing the exchange. But the data is still there forever.

I have been working on a way to do scripts in an invisible off-chain way, something called scriptless scripts. Where this witness data, like a hash preimage, is hidden in the signatures themselves. Validators will always have to check signatures and they are already checking this. My question here is, how much extra validation can we overload these signatures with? And can we do it in a way that validators don’t know about it, but people producing the signatures do?

I am taking digital signatures and adding some extra semantics to them. It turns out that you can do a lot like this. This historically came from the mimblewimble project that does not have support for explicit scripts. There was an open question when it appeared: how do we do any contracting, atomic exchanges, lightning? One answer turned out to be scriptless scripts, and that’s where it came from, but it turns out that it’s applicable to bitcoin as well. Most of what I am doing requires that we have support for schnorr signatures in bitcoin, which would require a new opcode. It doesn’t add any new semantics to the system, it just creates an alternative to the ECDSA signature algorithm that people can use if they want to.

Benedikt talked about schnorr signatures yesterday. In schnorr signatures, you can create multisig with two parties or more, which look the same to validators of single signatures. They do this by interactively producing a signature on a joint signing key. Each one has a signing key. They add them together and they are able to make a signature. A cool feature here is that when they are doing this interaction they first agree on the first half of the signature which is something like an ephemeral temporary public key (a nonce). And then they produce the real signature. I am going to stick a bunch of extra data into those steps. It never hits the chain. Once it hits the chain, it’s just a signature. But we can do some cool things in this space between signers.

I am going to use an “adaptor signature” where the two components of these schnorr signatures can be modified in such a way that we can add some random number t such that you can get a real signature knowing the secret value t and knowing the value secret t you can get a real signature. Knowledge of this value t becomes a key to producing this signature. The way this is done is using this thing called an adaptor signature. Someone can verify the adaptor signature. There’s a little t value and a big T value.

In atomic swaps, adaptor signatures can be used instead of hash preimages. These discrete log challenges, have a bunch of extra structure. One is that you can make them work across elliptic curves with some extra cryptography that I will publish in the next few months. So even between Monero using ed25519 and then bitcoin with secp256k1. The adaptor signatures are undetectable and they are deniable. What winds up hitting the chain are just these normal looking schnorr signatures, and this off-chain interaction where Bob secretly re-blinded these and passed them to Alice is undetectable and deniable. Anyone can take these two signatures after the fact on any blockchain, add them and make them look like an adaptor signature or whatever; there’s no evidence that the original stuff happened at all. This is good for privacy and fungibility. Coins that are used for various protocols like this are indistinguishable from coins used for normal p2p protocols.

An additional cool feature of scriptless scripts is that these adaptor signatures are re-blindable. You can chain not just two transactions, not just two transactions made atomic. You can make arbitrary chains of transactions atomic. I can make all the hops happen atomically. This is what lightning is based on. You can do this knowing that there’s no risk of coins being stolen because it’s all happening atomically. There’s a privacy issue with using hash preimages (a standard way to do this), where each party reveals a hash preimage and then the other parties can observe this. But each hop could have a custom challenge, and translate it into a new challenge. The participants in the hops are unable to tell without complete collusion that they are part of the same path even given the extra data. Nothing that hits the chain, no hashes that they can look at, to identify it. Even given the secret data they are passing amongst each other – even then each hop in the path involves uniformly random data that is uncorrelated with every other hop in that path or any other path. So that’s great thing for privacy on lightning.


A: You can do threshold signature tricks and that is completely compatible with this. You can have each party revealing different things to differnet people and they can have different weird structure ot their adaptor signatures.

A: Alice … alng with a alid signature with little t. Once you know s + t, and if you learn t or s, you can get the other one.

Q: So the signature will…

A: Exactly. There’s an additional thing gien. That’s the adaptor signature, is s + t.

Q: … linkability between the two… like atomic swaps.

A: No. The reason is that, after the signature is on the chain, there’s little s hitting the chain. Anyone can make up some t value and T value. Add little t to the signature and… and pretend it was some other r value. You can do this with any t value, it’s independent, there’s nothing tying this particular t value.

Q: Storage and transactions implication of this approach?

A: Using schnorr multisigs, there are multiple signatures being combined into one. A signature on any transaction input could be reduced from 128 bytes to 64 byte signature. In addition to that, using something like an atomic swap, and something like a hash preimage, thats another 64 bytes.. In this atomic swap example, rathe rthan having about 200 bytes of data which is multisig plus a hash and a preimage, that’s collapsed into one signature which is only 64 bytes. And on top of that there’s an additional topic called aggregate signatures which can reduce from 64 bytes to 32 bytes. The rest of the transaction is the same, the shape of the transaction is the same.

Q: This feels related to Tadge’s work?

A: I would love if Tadge would describe his work as a scriptless script so that I can claim to have a wide umbrella. I described adaptor signatures– you could do other stuff like pay to contract, sign to contract, discreet log contracts, and another thing I hae been working on that might be public in the next few months. I wanted to gie an example of what hiding hte contracts offers to the chain. I wanted to motiate the paradigm.