Transcript By: Bryan Bishop
The optimistic VM
Okay, let’s get started our afternoon session. Our first talk I am very happy to introduce our speaker on optimistic virtual machines. Earlier in this conference we heard about optimistic roll-ups and I’m looking forward to this talk on optimistic virtual machines which is an up-and-coming approach on doing this.
Why hello everyone. I am building on ethereum and in particular we’re going to make Optimism: the attitude that will save the day. We’re talking about the Optimistic virtual machine and this will cover a lot of layer 2’s in this talk. It’s like 3, 4 or 5 talks all crammed into one talk. First I have to thank everyone for these ideas: Ben Jones, Vitalik Buterin, Kevin Ho, all these bajillion of people. This is great.
We’re going to talk about layer 2 optimistic scaling as a way to conceptualize all of the layer 2 options. The second thing is layer 2 blockchains and state machines, and the constructions most useful for layer 2 which will include roll-up, plasma, and state channels. Then I will get into an overview of the Optimistic VM.
We had a concept of optimistic scaling. What does this really mean? When we were first walking on Plasma, we thought okay maybe we need a better conceptual framework for layer 2. One thing we can do is say okay ethereum we can think of ethereum as ethereum future state. The state machine has possible futures and then there’s finalized states. Alice might have a balance in her EVM saying she has 10 ETH and we can kind of conceptualize as this future cone of infinite possible future ethereum states. When the next block is mined and finalized, then we will actually make it to our next state. Alice might send a burn transaction and this is the common thing to deposit into layer 2 for instance, and will finalize a new state which includes Alice’s burned transaction and we transition the EVM state. This is how we generally work with blockchains and conceptualize the EVM. It’s this state machine up in the sky. And then we continue on.
If we think about it as future ethereum states, then we can make optimistic decisions. Layer 2 is about scaling and using the top-layer state machine less than we normally do and this is how we do it. Based on our private assumptions, we can make optimistic decisions or predictions of the future state of this ethereum state machine.
If Alice sends a burn transaction to a miner, she can make a 0-confirmation optimistic assumption which is the simplest optimistic assumption. Instead of saying her EVM state is 10 ETH, she could optimistically assume she has 5 ETH and that is because she is making the assumption that all her transactions will go through.
Optimistic dispute game resolution
This is useful for state channels and optimistic roll-ups where you have these dispute games where you assume if there is ever an invalid state, then there’s two future possible sets of states: one where the invalid exit is disputed, and one where it is not. There’s also a dispute liveness assumption where you can assume there is no possible future state where the dispute was not challenged. Before what happens on ethereum, we can update our balance, or say we own money even if it’s in this weird layer 2 superposition.
These off-chain messages can inform us about future ethereum states and we can optimistically update our balances and conceptions of the world based on the off-chain states. We can do this without layer one miners. We’re using the layer one state machine which is resource constrained, and we’re making assertions and changing state about much more information than that.
Optimistic future cone
So we have all these future states, and off-chain messages can actually inform us about what the future states will look like. We can optimistically transition the future states without transitioning the layer one state machine. We can eliminate future states that aren’t going to exist, like the ones that don’t account for whatever transactions are being sent.
So we can create transitions in this global state that are based on off-chain messages as well as on-chain messages. This started a crazy feeling that these are all the same things and we realized “wow everything is one and we can have a single conception of layer 2 this trusted computation layer this really really resource-constrained layer one and then we can build these off-chain system state machines on top of that”. That’s the crazy part.
Layer 2 blockchain constructions
Let’s talk about some layer 2 blockchain constructions that everyone has heard of. There’s roll-ups, plasma, and state channels. These are all state machines, you have state, you submit transactions, the states transition, and then it is taken to the next state. The head state is “valid and available” and we’ll talk about what that means. Layer 1 needs to have a “state root” or “state commitment”. Layer 1 must know the state commitment of what the most recent valid head state is. Additionally, we must guarantee to the users the ability to download the head state, because otherwise the state commitment isn’t helpful to the users. So the state commitments must be valid, available, and also live.
Layer one is its own state machines and has a global conception of layer 2 state machines like shards, roll-ups, state channels, etc. We can layer these state machines on top of each other, like a plasma on top of a roll-up chain. This property of understanding the head state, and making sure it’s available, and that it’s live, these things are things that persist across the whole system. We have limited compute memory on the layers above, and the more layers you go it’s not the less compute, but plasma just has different properties for roll-up really.
Layer one is the normal EVM state machine or maybe it’s the beacon chain or you know any “layer 1 thing” that we’re all syncing as a security requirement. Users all download this layer one and then they only download the sub-state machines that they care about in layer 2. The difference? This is where it gets practical between all the different layer 2s that are the main popular ones and there might be a little more than this but we might talk about that later.
We have optimistic roll-up, zk roll-up, optimistic plasma, ZK plasma, and state channels. All of these have liveness, they all have force-include transactions. I’m sure we could talk about this forever: users send a force transaction on the parent state machine which forces the child to make a stae transition in its state machine. This is how liveness is guaranteed. But let’s talk about availability mechanisms.
For roll-up, we have transactions and we need to make sure users at any point in time can download the head state. That’s the availability requirement. The way we guarantee this is that the genesis is published on chain, everyone knows the value, and we can locally compute the head state just by running all the transactions locally on my system and that’s how we guarantee availability with roll-up.
For validity, there’s optimistic roll-up vs ZK roll-up. We commit to the head state, but also intermediate states. If there’s ever a state commitment that is invalid, we can assume there will be a user that challenges the head state and replays the transaction back on the main chain or parent chain, prove that it is invalid, and throw away the invalid head state. This is how we guarantee the property that after a fraud proof lapses, we will know that the valid head state was at some point this particular state root. This is great in its general purposeness, but it’s annoying because we have to wait a week or whatever the dispute period is to get this guarantee or understanding of what this head state is.
The next thing is ZK roll-up- we can use succinct proofs like SNARKs or STARKs to prove the state transition validity. This is nice because it gives the ability to know the exact state immediately once we submit our state update or our transaction.
Now for plasma… Plasma has the same validity mechanism stuff, works for ZK plasma and optimistic plasma. The only difference between roll-up is the availability mechanism. We use an availability challenge or fisherman’s game where we say hey give me the most recent head state and the ethereum main chain enforces a game that we can analyze using optimistic game semantics that allow us to ensure that the head state will eventually be posted on chain and that we can download and exit from it. This means that at some point in time that the head state might be entirely unknown, which qualifies plasma for a number of use cases because it means that if there’s a futures contract all ending on one date we might really care about the state on that day and we can’t have one party that can unilaterally take it away. This is unfortunately limited.
State channels are great but they have a bounded participant set so the use cases are more limited.
Universal L2 client
We want to create a universal L2 client that can do all the things that ethereum can do. How do we in an arbitrary way determine the optimistic states? We wanted to figure out a way to figure out the optimistic states. We say how and we talked with some folks at Stanford and this led to a great paper on “Optimistic game semantics” where we can describe layer 2 dispute games all using the same kind of syntax. We also want to be able to support all ethereum EVM state transitions, which is great about ethereum and the developer experience is quite nice. A bunch of applications were disqualified, leaving us with optimistic roll-up and optimistic plasma with optimistic roll-up being slightly better because of the liveness properties.
How can we build an EVM that can be executed optimistically off-chain, and in the case of fraud we can prove fraud? This is called the Optimistic VM. This is how we get the universal L2 client trusted computation. What are these trusted state machines in layer 2? I’ll leave that to you guys because I don’t know how to formalize things very well.
We built an initial version of this thing, it’s very buggy. We wanted to make sure that this was not too hard to audit since normally layer 2 systems are hard to audit. We wanted to maintain developer tooling support, and we wanted to make sure it uses the account model because ethereum EVM does that too. We wanted to build an EVM that can execute optimistically and it should be relatively easy to audit.
Say you have an invalid state transition off-chain, you send it on-chain, you compute the result on-chain to prove that it is incorrect, and you throw out the invalid state transition on-chain. That’s why we are building this system. The most interesting part about executing a fraud proof is this moment right here where you’re trying to invalidate it. You need to create a virtual snapshot of that state in that moment of time, and play it forward for that fraud proof.
Virtualization for fraud proof
There’s two ways to do this: container virtualization and machine virtualization. We went for container virtualization. Machine virtualization is also cool. Container virtualization is a docker-type system vs machine virtualization which is more like VirtualBox. The container visualization side the virtual environment we create a separate name space in the EVM that has an isolated execution and you can only access state from within this small subset of the EVM but you’re actually using the raw EVM opcodes to execute addition, multiplication, and only in state access are you reaching into custom code.
Machine virtualization is where you create an opcode interpreter where you run these opcodes inside of the EVM and you compute the result. The good thing about having a kind of virtual environment style system is that you have much more efficient computation, you’re not going to be runninng an interpterter inside the EVM which is already extremely inefficient. With machine virtualization, you have more flexibility about which virtual machine you want to run or prove fraud about.
Since we’re targeting the EVM, we should go the easy route and make a just a virtual environment. That’s why we built the OVM virtual environment. TruBit did the other way around though with machine virtualization.
At the bottom level we have the EVM, and in the EVM we have an execution manager that creates the OVM virtual environment. You can have multiple virtual environments inside the same EVM. Each one of these has its own address space, their own smart contracts, their own internal sandbox. We can even run these kind of virtual environments that simulate the execution of an optimistic roll-up chain inside of a state transition which was evaluating the state transition of a plasma chain. So you can nest these things pretty arbitrarily. I like talking about nesting, even though I never use it. It’s fun conceptually.
The way we built the OVM is we have three main components. There’s the transpiler, the safety checker, and the execution manager. The transpiler is going to take EVM bytecode and it is going to turn it into safe opcodes that are executable in this virtual environment context. Safety checker enforces that all smart contracts are executed in that safe context. Execution manager manages the address space and storage of these systems.
We made sure to make this as efficient as possible, so we make a lot of POPs at the end so you can tell it’s very efficient…. nah. Even with all this excess crud we can get rid of, we’re only looking at a 20% gas overhead for impure operations like….. ((buffering issue)).
OVM gas overhead
Then we get 0% overhead for state-independent opcodes. There’s some overhead for pure operations like multiply, add, etc. Things like ZKPs where you’re doing a bunch of algorithmic checks, that stuff works very well and doesn’t add much state overhead at all. We have now transpiled the contract.
Now we deploy it to the EVM but we’re first going to run it through a safety checker which looks through all the opcodes and asks whether there are any invalid opcodes here, nope it looks good it’s been transpiled it’s not going to escape the sandbox environment now let’s hook it up to the execution manager and we’re good to go. Our newly added contract, and the other contracts, are all part of this sandboxed environment. It’s like an octopus managing all the code contracts and has state in its brain.
This gives us the fraud proof capabilities of a generalized EVM chain. So that kind of got us to the point where we can start experimenting with these general EVM state machines that we want to place on layer 1. That was like… this is a huge thing because we need to start you know scaling past our layer 1 constraints, so we’re on our way to building this universal L2 client. We need a scalable blockchain that can interpret state in a rich way.
We officially have finished a big hurdle for making the fraud proof part for optimistic plasma and optimistic roll-up. There’s a lot of work left to do. Our code is extremely buggy right now. Eventually we will be able to do ZK roll-up and state channels in a way that is more general purpose as possible.
Developer subsidy plea
Last time I came here I was super excited about open-source and how these projects are building great things and how we’re creating these huge huge infrastructure projects and everything is open-source and free to work on. I haven’t been blessed with the ability to build these open-source projects and can live happily and content and be able to pay my bills and all that kind of stuff, so I feel blessed. I am concerned though that in the long-term we don’t really have a good plan for how to make open-source blockchain projects sustainable. This is a plea to the incredibly intelligent folks in this room… this is an extremely important meta problem. These small problems of like scaling blockchain will be solved. But we need to have this larger problem of how do we support and sustain each other in this kind of global community that we’re creating and make it open and inviting and not put up barriers where we don’t need them. Let’s keep some optimism.
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